Researchers from the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco (UJAT) and El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (Ecosur) developed a low-cost system for the domestic production of edible fish and snails, as well as vegetables and legumes.
Its name is the Low Intensity Aquaponic System (SABI) and it allows a family to produce 150 kilograms of fish, snails and baskets in their backyard every six months. In addition, 40 kilograms of edible vegetables.
The system facilitates the circulation of nutrients by connecting aquaculture ponds with filters and tubes that carry high-value minerals for the production of vegetables, through agroponics. The central contribution of the model, called Aquaponics, is the separation and use of useful minerals for the nutrition of plants such as chili, chives, beans and tomatoes, among others.
Fernando Víctor Iriarte Rodríguez, professor in the Division of Agricultural Sciences of the UJAT, reported that the system was designed to be low cost, easy to install and low maintenance, with the aim of becoming a food production system in the backyard of thousands of houses in southeastern Mexico.
“The purpose of the SABI is to propose a strategy for the production of food in the family backyard in rural or peri-urban areas that allows the availability and access to fresh, safe and nutritious food for a long time, and with this help to combat food insecurity ”Said the UJAT researcher, who is also a doctoral student at Ecosur. In this Public Research Center Conacyt collaborates with Dr. Manuel Mendoza Carranza.
Iriarte Rodríguez explained that the SABI has three basic characteristics that allow its implementation easily:
1) it is cheap, by using materials commonly used in the construction industry and allowing the reuse of materials such as PET bottles (for flowerpots) and industrial-type plastic containers (for filters);
2) it has low energy consumption since it mostly uses gravity to move the water and a single low consumption magnetic pump to generate recirculation; Y
3) is environmentally friendly, as it includes native aquatic organisms with high aquaculture potential such as tilapia, the tote snail (Pomacea flagellata), acocil (Procambarus llamasi); and vegetables such as the bald beanVigna sp.), sweet pepper (Capsicum sp.) and chives (Allium sp.), which are part of the food culture of Tabasco, likewise their water consumption after filling is low and sediment discharge is minimal.
In the SABI system all organisms have a function: tilapia is the first consumer and processes balanced feed, the organic matter produced in this first step is consumed by the snail, which reduces it in volume and is transported in the water to a tank settler where it is transformed by bacteria into mineral salts that are absorbed by the plants, these during their growth eliminate roots that are consumed by the cupiles in such a way that the water from the vegetable crop is biologically viable and is finally pumped into the crop of tilapia closing the recirculation cycle.
The design of the system allows the elderly, adolescents or housewives to carry out the maintenance of the crops in just two hours a day, divided into periods of thirty to forty minutes when the production system has already been standardized.
The requirements to be able to establish this family food self-sufficiency system are to enable a flat area of six by ten meters (without trees, logs and stones), well water, river or public network (it must be clean and free of sediments) and have energy low voltage electricity (CFE or wind or photocells) .Ecoportal.net
By Antimio Cruz