There are two methods to make a homemade electric generator, either using a dynamo or building our own generator.
A generator has two parts:
- The stator, the part that does not move and is equipped with the coils to collect electricity.
- The rotor, the part that moves and has the magnets that induce electricity in the coils.
How to make a hydroelectric generator.
The first thing we will do is print the discs that you can find here.
We will stick this plane to a piece of corrugated cardboard, trying not to form lumps when gluing it. With the help of a cutter, we cut the rotor and the stator.
We will make a small hole in the center of the rotor using a nail, larger in the center of the stator (specifically the size of the circle that is drawn).
Fold a 3 x 16 cm piece of cardboard in half and wrap electrical tape around it to keep it that way. This cardboard will be our guide to make the coils.
Prepare 8 4 cm strips of electrical tape before the next step. Wind the enameled copper wire through the guide to form the first coil so that it has about 200 turns, but not before leaving about 10 cm unwound to be the connectors.
Carefully pull the guide off the spool and use the pieces of electrical tape to hold the shape of the spool. Scrape the enamel off the ends of each wire with sandpaper (about 1 cm from each end). Make sure that portion of the wire is completely free of enamel. Repeat the steps above to make another three coils.
Place the coils on the stator disc, respecting the direction indicated by the template (two coils wound clockwise and two counter-clockwise). Join the wires in such a way that the current can follow the path indicated by the arrows, starting with the anti-clockwise coil on the lower left side. The joining of the cables must be made by winding the enamel-free sides of each coil. Apply electrical tape to cover the connections.
Verify that your connections are correct by measuring the resistance of the circuit with a multimeter. If the connections are well made, the resistance should be small (<10 ohms).
Once correct operation is confirmed, glue the coils to the stator using silicone. Wait for the silicone to dry before placing the next coil.
Get 4 rare earth or ceramic type magnets of about 18mm in diameter. Using a magnetic compass, determine the polarity of each side of the magnet and mark the north pole of two magnets and the south pole of the other two.
Glue the magnets with silicone in such a way that the polarity alternates (N-S-N-S). The position and polarity are described on the rotor chart.
We will make the axis with a wooden dowel of 20 cm x 1/4 ?. We will sharpen the dowel with a blade.
To build the turbine, we must drill the center of a 3 to 5 cm cork with a 1/4 ”drill. Place the cork on the template and using a pencil mark the places where the spoons will be placed.
Using a utility knife, pierce the marked spots. Cut the mango from 8 plastic spoons leaving a centimeter of mango. Insert the spoons into the cork and adjust the angle and depth of each spoon so that they are spaced and have the same angle of inclination in relation to the cork. Glue the spoons to the cork with silicone.
Get a 4 liter jug of rectangular shape, cut the bottom part with scissors or a razor as seen in the photo.
Using a ruler, find the center of one of the lateral sides. Mark this point with indelible marker. Repeat work on the opposite side. Pierce both sides with a 1/4? Drill. on the mark you made.
With the help of pins, secure the stator to one of the sides of the container in such a way that the center of the stator coincides with the center of the container.
With the help of scissors, cut 2 pieces of 1 cm each from a 1/4? PVC pipe. Pass the tube through the center of the plastic container and the stator and shaft as seen in the figure.
Insert the dowel through the turbine and container as seen in the figure above. Position the turbine inside the container so that the spoons are under the bottleneck. Also adjust the position of the vinyl tube so that it does not touch the inside of the container. Now place the second tube after the stator. The tubes will help keep all parts of the turbine in position when it rotates. Turn the turbine to check that the turbine does not hit the inside of the container.
Insert the rotor onto the shaft. The magnets should be about 2-3mm from the coils. Rotate the shaft to check that the magnets are not hitting the coils. Adjust the angle of the disc if necessary.
If the rotor turns smoothly, fix the position of the rotor by placing hot silicone on the dowel.
Place the container near a spout and spin the turbine with water. Measure the energy you produce with a multimeter.
Note: If you decided to use the dynamo, replace the rotor and stator with it.
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