Report “Evaluation of the socio-environmental impact of the hydrocarbon activity in the Mapuche communities and their territories. Neuquén, Argentina "
This Report attempts to evaluate the multiple Impacts of the Hydrocarbon Activity on the territory of the Paynemil and Kaxipayiñ Mapuche Communities, and on the Communities themselves, ancestral owners of those territories invaded by the deposit. The study has its origin in the evaluation and compensation agreement, concluded between said Communities and the company Repsol-YPF SA on September 7, 2000. In said agreement, perhaps unprecedented in an activity such as the oil company and in an area Inhabited by communities of an original town, the company accepted an annual period of payments on account of compensation and allocated funds for the expenses of the evaluation teams of the Communities.
This is not the place to develop the various factors that have led the parties to such an appraisal and compensation agreement. Many of them will become explicit for readers interested in the treatment of the different dimensions and topics of this Report, as well as the vision of the quasi-permanent state of conflict that supposes a clearly incompatible coexistence between two cultures, logics, scales of values and meanings of life so divergent, installed in the same geographic location.
- In the first part, the intention was to give the floor to the Mapuche people and their communities, the main - although not the only ones - affected by an exploitation that began, more than a quarter of a century ago, in the marginal lands where they were dispersed. and cornered the surviving families of a war of extermination, which received with extreme euphemism the denomination of 'Conquest of the Desert'. Your proposals are accepted as is in this Report.
- The Report expands, in the second part, on the political and legal aspects of the situation under study, on the intervening social actors, on the topics of damages or impacts and liability, also facilitating access to various sources of study and consultation in the interest of a greater deepening of the issues addressed.
- The third part, more extensive, is dedicated to the complex web of technical aspects of the damage caused, linked to human beings and groups (cultural and psychological, for example), and to the different natural and economic resources affected by both pollution continued environmental and security deficit, prevailing in this type of exploitation.
The evaluation is not intended to be exhaustive; It is obvious that the limited deadlines of this evaluation process (of less than ten months and also interfered by the worsening of the conflict between the parties) do not allow it. Like all research, especially of these characteristics of complexity and interactivity, it is perfectible. However, it is worth having begun to clear an almost untraveled path, to propose new hypotheses and questions that open to other greater deepening, and -more than finished conclusions- formulate a series of recommendations and proposals, in order to pave the way -with good will and imagination- other possible paths towards a different, more rational, humanistic and equitable relationship between human beings and their natural environment, and between a capitalist and multinational company with already affected local communities, indigenous and non-indigenous.
It is obvious that a comprehensive evaluation of the impacts could not separate those that affect the natural environment (biosphere) from those that harm human beings that inhabit it (noosphere), both individually and socially. We hope that this work, which does not pretend to be only a complaint and alert, contributes to a first impact assessment and a collective awareness of the current global policy that tends to grant “free stone”, environmentally and socially, to transnational investments that destroy or prey on nature and simultaneously the work forces, and awaken new concerns and political, social, environmental, legal, technological and academic initiatives, in the sense of protecting life, integrity, health, diversity and the balance of all nature and all human beings.
If these results are achieved, in any or any measure, those of us who have contributed to it in one way or another will feel satisfied.
Mapuche team: Roberto Ñancucheo - Florentino Nahuel (C.O.M.) -
Elba Paynemil (C. M. Paynemil) - Gabriel Rolando Cherqui (C.M. Kaxipayiñ)
Legal Team: Carlos Falaschi O. (Coord.) - Miguel A. Quiruga - Nara Osés (Collaborative ad honorem)
Team: Techn. Amb. Leonardo Datri (Coord.) - Ing. And Techn. Francisco Zambón - Lic. Laura C. Mombello
Anthropology: Anthrop. Mombello - Advisory: Antrop. Claudia Briones
Psychology: Psych. Fernando Esviza placeholder image
Livestock: Méd. Vet. Marcelo Miserendino
Vegetation and Flora: FaCA-UNC Team: Ing. Ftal. Amalia D. Bustamante (Coord.) - Ing. Agr. Adriana B. Bünzli - Eng. Adriana P. Bustamante - Eng. María Beatriz Cerazo - Eng. Luisa Conticello - Eng. Magalí Venturini
Cartography: Luciano Flores, with the advice of Lic. Zulema Semorile
Water Advisory: Ing. Quím. Adriana giorgio
Toxicology Advisory: Dra. Lilian Corra
Lic. Antonio Elio Brailovsky
Administration: Assistant Admin .: Ruben I. Visnevetsky
Carlos Falaschi O.
DOCUMENT No. 1
First part "Mapuche Philosophical Foundation" (complete)
Spiritual and cultural foundation
Notions of Mapuche development
More serious consequences of hydrocarbon activity
Legal basis for our position
Proposed work plan
Oil stains in the Mapuche identity
Actions to repair the cultural damage caused
Annex: “White men, how can you buy or sell the sky, the heat of the Earth?
DOCUMENT No. 2
Second part "Political and Legal Framework of the Evaluation" (1/3)
Two found conceptions: Land-territory vs. Deposit
Mapuche settlements in the current area of the UE-LLL deposit
Constitutional reform and new legal categories
Status of the territorial rights of indigenous communities
DOCUMENT No. 3
Second part "Political and Legal Framework of the Evaluation" (2/3)
Civil liability and those responsible for the socio-environmental impact
The configuration of criminal offenses in the conduct of the company
DOCUMENT No. 4
Second part "Political and Legal Framework of the Evaluation" (3/3)
Extension of the YPF-LLL concession: gross violation of indigenous constitutional right
Mass-media and advertising of Repsol-YPF and oil companies in general
Black humor, E. Galeano
DOCUMENT No. 5
Evaluation team Third part
Third part "Technical Foundation of the Evaluation" (1/8)
DOCUMENT No. 6
Third part "Technical Foundation of the Evaluation" (2/8)
Hydrocarbon activity data (1/2)
DOCUMENT No. 7
Third part "Technical Foundation of the Evaluation" (3/8)
Hydrocarbon activity data (2/2)
DOCUMENT No. 8
Third part "Technical Foundation of the Evaluation" (4/8)
Hydrocarbons and health effects (1/2)
DOCUMENT No. 9
Third part "Technical Foundation of the Evaluation" (5/8)
Hydrocarbons and health effects (2/2)
DOCUMENT No. 10
Third part "Technical Foundation of the Evaluation" (6/8)
Culture and environment
DOCUMENT No. 11
Third part "Technical Foundation of the Evaluation" (7/8)
Relationship of extractive activities with environmental impact
DOCUMENT No. 12
Third part "Technical Foundation of the Evaluation" (8/8)
Effects on livestock activity
Conclusions and recommendations
"Table of interdisciplines" (Excel)
Soil and water analysis (graphs 1 and 2)
Graphics ("functional diagram of an ecosystem" and "profile of the yacim. LLL and dynamics of the system")
Blood and urine analysis in villagers
Sources and bibliography
DOCUMENT No. 13
Minutes - Agreement