By Gustavo Castro Soto
States must prevent third parties, such as transnationals, from violating the human rights of their citizens (obligation to protect); prevent their own officials from violating these rights (obligation to respect); and take measures at all levels to facilitate understanding and awareness that makes possible a respectful society in which all its members respect human rights (obligation to guarantee).
On March 30, in the city of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, social and peasant organizations decided to bring complaints about the effects of transnational investments to the Permanent Peoples' Tribunal (TPP). Cases were presented on the generation of energy in El Salvador by an Italian company; on the effects of Spanish cooperation in Nicaragua; the pineapple monoculture plantations in Costa Rica; and the cement industry by a French company in Honduras. In addition, there were complaints about mining, logging and other problems in Honduras. The judges from Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras heard the testimonies and received the evidence. In the end, they sentenced. This opinion is reproduced below.
Thanks to the coordination of Lic. Dolores Jarquin of the Nicaraguan Movement Another World is Possible, the Central American movements and organizations are making use of their word and denouncing through the TPP. An ethical and moral tool that brings to the fore the voice of the peoples affected by those who continue to generate deep ecological, social, cultural, economic, military and political footprints.
We consider that we have the challenge of generating a culture of Permanent Peoples' Courts in all corners where capitalism and its Corporation-Nation model are leaving their traces of destruction. Making this imprint visible and patent is also a condition for raising awareness about the need to generate what we call “Alter-Natos”. Yes, different from "Alternatives" understood as another option to capitalism, but in the same way unique and hegemonic. We believe that it is necessary to generate all those antisystemic experiences of their own, diverse, that recover cultural diversity so that all these fit. Paths that start from below, with their own expressions.
Indeed, the Neoliberal model has already been exhausted. It has already been implemented in the South. This model is not an end in itself but a mechanism that opens the doors to the acceleration of capital accumulation where the State has handed over to the Corporations the wealth, the laws, the mechanisms, and the control of the market. They have generated their own supranational courts and laws. Seeds, medicines, patents, water, energy, forests are being rapidly concentrated in their hands, and now they are about the appropriation and privatization of the atmosphere through environmental services and emission bonds. . They already behave like a Nation, with their own rules and with more wealth and power than the States themselves. This Nation-Corporation model is already the pinnacle of the latest model of dying capitalism. However, the process has not been possible without the help of the governments themselves, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and other multilateral institutions and private banks. But also from those of us who have let this happen.
For this reason, today more than ever, it is urgent to strengthen and generate all kinds of antisystemic experiences, "Alter-Natos".
Permanent Court of the Peoples
Central American audience
On the ecological, historical, social and economic debt of European countries with Central America
Opinion of the Jury
1. The Permanent Peoples Tribunal: its legitimacy
The vocation and statute of the Permanent Peoples Tribunal is to give visibility and qualify in terms of law all those situations in which the massive violation of the fundamental rights of humanity does not find recognition or institutional responses, be it at the national or international level. Throughout the more than 25 years of its history and through its 35 sessions, the Permanent Peoples Tribunal has accompanied, anticipated and supported the struggles of peoples against the spectrum of violations of their fundamental rights, including the denial of self-determination, foreign invasions, new dictatorships and slavery of the economy and the destruction of the environment.
It is evident that the violation of human rights benefits from loopholes in international law, which has allowed many levels of fundamental decisions for the survival of peoples and enormous social layers within them to remain in the hands of rentier voracity. of the big capitals.
The Permanent Peoples Tribunal was established in 1979 as a successor to the Russell Tribunals on Vietnam (1966-1967) - called the “Tribunal against the Crime of Silence” - and on the dictatorships of Latin America (1974-1976), and its specific mission is to transform into permanent the function initiated by the court founded by the English philosopher.
The Permanent People's Court is a court of “opinion”, so its rulings are not imperative for governments, and it can only exert influence over public opinion. As Bertrand Russell pointed out, this apparent weakness is a source of strength, because the Court's decisions are not conditioned by any State Reason. The very existence of the Tribunal and its echo in the Peoples is evidence of its legitimacy, because the Tribunal is an expression of the sovereignty of the peoples of the world, who are the only source of authority of the States themselves.
2. The Central American audience and its background
The Permanent Peoples Court begins this Central American Hearing with the purpose of directly examining the mode of operation and the consequences of the activity of European transnational companies in the region. A privileged occasion is offered for the Court, which will allow it to observe in the scene the economic practices that profoundly affect the validity of the civil, political, economic, social, cultural and environmental rights of the inhabitants of the countries where these companies they operate.
This Hearing has antecedents that support and justify it. In this sense, at the Hearing held in Vienna in May 2006 it was concluded that "the complexity and seriousness of the complaints and the corresponding violations require further investigations." Based on this, the Court held in Lima, between May 13 and 16, 2008, the Session on “European Neoliberal and Transnational Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean”.
In that session, the Tribunal clearly warned of serious global problems, with words that shed light on the current crisis in the international financial system. Indeed, three years ago, the Court said that:
"The current financial crisis, and the serious economic turbulence, which it is giving rise to in all areas, clearly show that this system involves cyclically high economic and social costs in its own terms, so that it is increasingly questioned by their own drivers in the theoretical field (although they continue to be used more and more intensely in reality). "
The serious economic consequences anticipated by the Court are the concrete reality of these current moments. In the same opinion, and with the same honesty, the Court warned about the consequences of:
"An intrinsically and increasingly inefficient system, except for those who control the world economy, whose benefits increase while the rest suffer increasing inequality and poverty."
Likewise, the investigations of the Court on economic crimes, excluded from the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, recognize antecedents in the sessions on "The case of the Bhopal disaster and corporate irresponsibility" (Bhopal, 1991-London 1994), "Politics of the IMF and World Bank ”(Berlin, 1988-Madrid 1994),“ transnational corporations in the textile, clothing and sportswear industries and their impacts on labor rights and the environment ”(Brussels, 1998),“ The bad practices of transnational corporations ”(Warwick, 2001), and hearings on the role of transnational corporations in Colombia (Berna 2005-Bogotá 2006-2008).
In this hearing, there has been the collaboration of organizations and the Social Movement of Central America, as well as the communities affected by the actions of Transnational Companies of European origin and local Economic Groups.
The work was carried out through a public session that was attended by a large number of members of different social organizations. Witnesses, experts and victims orally presented the central claim, the documented cases and conceptual analyzes, and answered the questions posed by the members of the Jury.
The Jury wishes to underline the excellent quality of the reports and testimonies presented, as well as the richness of the documentation that in printed or electronic form was made available to the Court, to support with copies of original documents all the details of the cases and of the situations referred to at the Hearing.
3. The Jury
The Jury was made up of the following members of the Permanent Peoples Tribunal:
a) Lorena Zelaya Pineda: Medical, Honduran activist who accompanies various social movements, Member of the Mesoamerican Forum of the Peoples, of the National Coordinator of Popular Resistance of Honduras, and member of the Honduran Popular Bloc.
b) Gustavo Castro Soto: Director of Otros Mundos, A.C./Amigos de la Tierra México. Member of the Coordination of the Latin American Network against Dams and in Defense of Rivers (REDLAR), as well as of the Mexican Movement of People Affected by Dams and in Defense of Rivers (MAPDER) and of the Mexican Network of People Affected by Mining (REMA). President of the Tribunal.
c) Mario Godinez: Coordinator of Asociación Ceiba Guatemala, Friends of the Earth Guatemala. President of the Council of Development Institutions of Guatemala and of the executive committee of the Friends of the Earth International Environmental Federation. Agricultural engineer.
d) David Reyes: Ecologist from Ecuador, member of Acción Ecológica and the Latin American Network Against Dams and in Defense of Rivers (REDLAR), Agricultural Engineer. Research on pesticides, water and energy.
e) Marcelino Martínez: Honduran criminal lawyer, with 30 years of struggle in defense of human rights in Honduras. Ecologist, Coordinator of the Organization Mártires de Guaymas, has been a Consultant for FIAN Honduras. Member of the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras and Member of the Anticorruption Bar in Honduras.
And Dolores Jarquín, representing Gianni Tognoni, Executive Secretary of the Permanent People's Court.
4. Context of the actions of transnational companies in Central America
Due to the strategic importance that transnational companies take in the new phase of conducting the capitalist system in the region, this audience considers it necessary to analyze their performance within the framework of their interrelationship with the state structures of the countries of the region and the multilateral entities of the dominant economic blocs.
At a time called by the hegemonic powers of the world as a global “De Crisis”, the transnationals, mainly European and North American, are preparing to develop a new phase of looting in the region. The architecture of globalization in this new stage increasingly involves the national governments of both the countries of origin of these companies and the multilateral and regional financing entities. (IFIS).
In the case of the European Union, it had based its strategy of influence in the Central American region, through what it called "political dialogue and cooperation." These mechanisms, for the current phase of global capital accumulation, are insufficient and now the EU and Central American governments are promoting the signing of an “Association Agreement” that contemplates, in addition to the political clause, all the elements of a “free trade” agreement that would be based on the treaties already signed with the United States.
The measures contemplated in a possible trade treaty between the EU and Central America seek that European transnational companies obtain greater privileges than those they currently have, and an offensive to seize new spaces of life and the community economy.
5. Cases presented: accused states, transnational companies and economic groups.
Case 1: The clean energy dirt.
- Sector: Energy.
- Country: El Salvador
- Defendant group: State Company Geo and Enel Green Power.
- Origin: Italy
- Plaintiffs: Coordinator for the Defense of the San Simón Sub-Basin and Salvadoran Ecological Unit (UNES).
In this case, the promoters of the project intend to give as an example a supposed technological production of clean energy based on geothermal production. It is a project executed using resources from the Clean Development Mechanisms through non-carbon emission certificates.
The complainants demonstrated the following impacts: tax evasion, decrease in the flow of their water sources, damage to the health of the inhabitants (respiratory diseases, headaches, kidney problems, vomiting, among others) noise pollution, damage to the local agriculture, deterioration of the soil due to flooding, destruction of coffee plantations, forests, fruit trees, appropriation of land, loss of vegetation, social decomposition in the communities from buying wills and non-payment of labor benefits, water pollution (loss and muddling of surface water currents, deepening of aquifers, air pollution), fundamental elements of food sovereignty.)
The promise of job creation for the inhabitants turned into few and precarious jobs. They socialize the losses and privatize the gains.
The presence of the company in the community has not meant any improvement in living conditions.
In order to avoid its responsibilities, the company used different names in its different production cycles.
The project is installed without consulting the affected community at all about it and without properly reporting the impacts that the installation would cause to its inhabitants.
The demands of the inhabitants consist of the company "repairing" the damage to the community.
Case 2: Expansion of the pineapple monoculture.
- Sector: Agroindustry.
- Country: Costa Rica.
- Defendant group: Corporación de Desarrollo Agrícola Del Monte S.A.
- Origin: England
- Plaintiffs: National Front of Sectors Affected by the Piñera Expansion; Center for Environmental Development and Natural Resources (CEDARENA).
The entry of pineapple monoculture production in Costa Rica means the flexibility of labor contracts. The company is located in the free zone regime that avoids the fair payment of taxes. This mode of production has made the area the place with the greatest contamination to people by pesticides in the country (place with the most genetic malformations in the country, aerial sprays contaminate surrounding areas).
The company's form of production is with mixed mechanisms, which include the appropriation of large amounts of land and, at the same time, contract farming with small producers.
Damages to health are manifested in injuries to the skin, eyes and respiratory caused by pesticides, low back pain due to long hours of work in an uncomfortable position, shortening of the working life of people.
Ecological damage derived from aerial spraying causes natural predatory animals of other species to die and other invasive species of insects can develop causing immense damage in the region (uncontrollable population of blood-sucking flies (stomoxy calcitran).
Case 3: Conditions of Spanish Cooperation in order to favor transnational capital
- Country: Nicaragua.
- Defendant group: Government of Spain, Unión Fenosa and SETA.
- Origin Spain.
- Plaintiffs: Nicaraguan Social Movement Another World is Possible
The plaintiffs demonstrated how the Spanish State facilitates the expansion of its transnational companies through the indebtedness of the Nicaraguan government and people, conditioning the FAD loans in exchange for supporting the economic interests of said companies, signing or ratifying advantageous commercial agreements for the companies, in exchange for interference in the sovereignty of the country. At the same time, they demonstrated how not only companies benefited from buying companies in seasons of structural adjustment, but later from their status as a monopoly service provider, generating a series of abuses against users.
They are elite debts, favoring national and foreign economic groups.
Spanish companies, in the end, obtain double subsidies, firstly under the subsidy of the government of their country of origin, and then forcing the Nicaraguan state to acquire debt to contract with the same company (the debt is triple paid). The loans do not respond to the needs of the recipient country but to the needs to sell technology and services and the logic of expansion of the companies in the issuing country.
The Nicaraguan people do not know the detailed origin of the debt, who took the loan, under what circumstances or to serve what interest, what the loan was for, how the debt was managed, etc.
The sector towards which the credit is oriented is towards public services, which openly coincides with the potential sectors that the Association Agreement with the European Union seeks to benefit.
Case 4: Impact of the La Farge Cementos Cement Industry in Honduras.
- Sector: Non-metallic mining
- Country: Honduras
- Defendant group: La Farge
- Origin: France
- Plaintiffs: Union of Workers of the Cement Industry of Honduras, (SITRAINCEHSA); Unitary Federation of Workers of Honduras (FUTH); International Construction of wood; Danish Unitary Federation of Workers (3F); Popular Bloc and the National Coordinator of Popular Resistance.
The workers demonstrated how they were arbitrarily dismissed under lies, coercion, threats, intimidation through the violent use of heavily armed private security forces and with the collusion of state security forces. (The dismissals affected not only unionized workers, but also relatives of deceased unionized workers, who also worked in the company).
The dismissals were carried out despite having a collective bargaining agreement, in violation of union jurisdiction.
They have come to seek justice in the national system and have not obtained it, they have resorted to international justice and have not yet obtained a response.
The cement industry is causing destruction of the places where it is installed by the emission of dust in the crusher, burning of tires, emission of persistent organic pollutants.
Two complaints were also filed:
1) Complaint 1: Looting of water and forests, mega projects (tourism, dams and mining)
- Sector: Natural resources
- Country: Honduras
- Defendant group: European Union
- Origin: European Union
- Claimants: COPINH
The Coordinating Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations of Honduras, COPINH.- The complaint focused on the policy of the European Union, aimed at establishing not only the Association agreement, but also the financing of legislative projects that contemplate the concession, privatization and support to transnationals with the complicity of the World Bank, IDB, CABEI. As an example, the following were given: The individualization of community land titles, cutting down of forests financed as sustainable uses, mega-dam projects (Patuca III and El Tigre), support for tourism projects in the Garífuna territories.
2) Complaint 2: The problem of mining.
- Sector: Metal mining
- Country: Honduras
- Defendant group: Compañía Mineras en San Andrés (Gold Corp.), Lago de Yojoa (American Pacific), Agalteca (Five Star), Valle de Syria (Gold Corp)
- Origin: Canada, Italy
- Plaintiffs: Mother Earth
The mining exploitation that reaches 30% of the Honduran national territory, with the contamination of the water through the use of cyanide, the environmental risks due to its spillage. Examples: San Andrés Copán, Agalteca, Olancho, Valle Syria, the contamination of Lake Yojoa, and the contamination and destruction of fish in San Andrés that practically eliminate the food base of local people.
6. Proven facts and violated rights
The cases with testimonial, graphic, documentary and expert evidence were presented before the peoples court; which included audiovisuals with interviews and photographs of the affected peoples and areas, showing the reality of the situation and demonstrating the responsibility of companies and States in the violation of fundamental human rights.
In a forceful and decisive expression, the witnesses exposed their daily life, sufferings and inequalities. The elements that were taken into account in the presentations of the cases showed the vulnerability of the populations and the illegitimacy of the transnational companies.
The documents presented as well as the testimonies given before this court and before the hearing, allow the following to be taken for granted:
The inability of national states to protect the exercise of the rights of their citizens, their social organizations and communities against the abuses and violations carried out by transnational companies.
All decisions related to the installation of external investments, megaprojects and decisions on cooperation have been made behind the back of the decision-making and participation mechanisms of the affected communities.
The actions of the transnationals in all cases combine an action strategy based on “subcontracting”, anti-union policy and abusive propaganda to make their profits more efficient and evade their work responsibilities.
The objectives and principles set forth by the companies' propaganda to convince and establish themselves in the communities and countries, contrasts with the impacts reported by the affected communities.
The illegitimacy of the debt contracted by the states is based on the conditionality under which the financing is granted, tying down the contracts of Spanish companies that are the main beneficiaries.
The investments of the European Union aggravate the conditions of Climate Change to the extent that it generates deforestation and other environmental impacts that exacerbate global warming.
In the same way, the jury confirms that with the cooperation and investment mechanisms presented here, the economic, social and environmental debt of the Central American peoples is exacerbated.
7. Of obligations
The states have clearly defined obligations before the international community and before their peoples, when it comes to the enjoyment of a universal heritage, such as human rights, for which they must do their utmost to prevent third parties, such as for example, transnationals violate the human rights of their citizens (obligation to protect); prevent their own officials from violating these rights (obligation to respect); and take measures at all levels to facilitate understanding and awareness that makes possible a respectful society in which all its members respect human rights (obligation to guarantee). In the cases presented, it is evident that the Central American states have not complied with their international obligations, even in violation of their own domestic law, and have left the affected citizens abandoned to their fate and at the will of the transnational companies. In the case of the Spanish state, a member of the European Economic Community, it has not only failed to comply with its international obligations, but has also become an active agent or facilitator of human rights violations of the Nicaraguan people.
In all cases, it has been shown that the denounced states and transnational companies have privileged commercial relations, violating universal principles established by the Vienna Convention, which establish that human rights treaties have preeminence over other types of treaties and laws, whereas they are not synalagmatic treaties (which oblige one state against another) but rather oblige the states against humanity, in protection of their inherent rights.
8. Of responsibilities
Failure to comply with international human rights obligations implies responsibility for the states, who must take measures aimed at stopping human rights violations and compensating the victims of these violations for the damages caused in the perpetration of the aggression to their rights.
In the cases known to this court, a whole range of rights have been violated, among which we can mention the right to health (physical and mental), to food, to work, to free unionization, to water, to the environment. healthy, to a decent home, to a decent life, to information, to effective remedies against decisions that violate their rights, to prior consultation, not to be displaced from their communities, to autonomy and self-determination and to the territory in the case of indigenous communities, all established in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, ILO Convention 169, Protocol of San Salvador, the Stockholm Convention, among others.
All these violations of human rights in general make the situation of vulnerable groups even more difficult, such as indigenous peoples, indigenous peoples, Afro-descendant peoples, peasants, children and women.
8.1 Individualization of responsibilities.
8.1.1.- The States.
The Central American governments and the European Union have not complied with the obligation to take immediate measures to enforce the enjoyment of rights in the fields of training their officials, drafting laws, and structuring institutional and constitutional guarantees to enforce the right. of affected communities.
The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Export Credit Agencies, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI), are responsible for financing investment projects that violate human rights, disguised as development projects that actually promote accumulation of capital of the big transnationals and they have become the main instruments of domination of the rich countries who thus evade all economic, social and environmental obligations that they have before the international community.
It is through Association Agreements and Free Trade Agreements that these types of asymmetric relations are imposed on the most disadvantaged countries, which further deepen the situation of vulnerability in the exercise and enjoyment of human rights.
8.1.2. Transnational companies.
From all the foregoing, it can be inferred that the most benefited in this order of things are the transnational companies, which has given them more power to the extent that they have reached, as evidenced in the present hearing, situations in which they operate above the law, they dictate their own law and / or impose their conditions of domination as a world rule, holding a greater power than the States.
The effective responsibility of transnational companies is blurred, to the point that one can speak of institutionalized impunity, thanks to the elusive nature of these entities, which make them virtually invisible. Transnational corporations are not regulated, they regulate themselves.
All of the foregoing has served both the European Economic Community and the United States to evade their obligations under international law.
8.1.3. States whose nationality is held by the parent companies of the transnational corporations.
The transnational companies that have been examined in this Court act in the Central American region with the endorsement and / or collusion of the States and Governments where their headquarters reside. This responsibility is even greater when it comes to state-owned companies.
It should be noted that in some of the cases analyzed, it is the governments where the parent companies reside who exert pressure on the Central American governments to defend the interests of said companies.
For this reason, the court duly establishes the responsibility of the States where these parent companies operate.
8.1.4. European Union
The current policies of the European Union defend the interests of transnational companies as their own. El Tribunal deja sentada la responsabilidad que tiene la Unión Europea en tal sentido.
Por las consideraciones precedentes, y en el marco de la Séptima Ronda de Negociaciones ADA-Unión Europea-Centroamérica que se llevan a cabo en Tegucigalpa, el tribunal RESUELVE:
Caso 1: La suciedad de la energía limpia.
Este Tribunal Declara culpables al Estado Salvadoreño y a la empresa mixta LaGeo-Enel-Green Power S.A. de la violación del derecho al medio ambiente sano, a un nivel de vida adecuado, a la información previa, a una alimentación adecuada incluida el agua, a la salud, a la vivienda, al acceso a los servicios públicos, a un recurso efectivo frente a las violaciones de los derechos humanos de las comunidades de Ahuachapán y Usulután de la República de El Salvador, por las operaciones realizadas en la Sub Cuenca del Río San Simón en el norte del Departamento de Usulután que han dejado como consecuencia la profundización de los mantos acuíferos, la modificación y destrucción del suelo, la contaminación del aire, enfermedades respiratorias y de la piel, la descomposición del tejido social patentado en la división de la comunidad, el encarecimiento de la vivienda, todo derivado de las explotaciones que realiza la empresa sin el debido control y supervisión que el estado de El Salvador debiera de realizar para salvaguardar los derechos humanos de las poblaciones mencionadas. Por otro lado, esta inversión que implicó la privatización del sector y el arrebatamiento de sus recursos locales dejando a cambio mayor pobreza, daños y sin ningún beneficio para las comunidades.
Por lo tanto, este Tribunal emplaza al gobierno salvadoreño que tome medidas inmediatas para:
***La restitución y restauración del medio ambiente: agua, tierra, cultivos, aire; asi como la reparación del tejido social dañado por las prácticas de la empresa LaGeo a los habitantes de los municipios de Berlin y Alegría.
***Garantizar la compensación e indemnización económica a los habitantes de los municipios de Berlín y Alegría por parte de los responsables.
Caso 2: Expansión del monocultivo de piña.
Este Tribunal encuentra culpable al gobierno de Costa Rica por no ser capaz de proteger frente a terceros los derechos humanos de las comunidades donde operan los monocultivos de piña de la empresa Del Monte que tiene su sede en Inglaterra, país miembro de la Unión Europea. Entre los derechos violados en el presente caso abarcan el derecho a la salud, al agua, a la alimentación, a un medio ambiente sano, al territorio de los pueblos indígenas, y con especial mención a la seguridad laboral y a la atención y prevención de las enfermedades profesionales como afecciones musculo esqueléticos, lumbalgia provocadas por la posición al ejercer el trabajo y las condiciones extenuates por las exposiciones permanentes al sol sin sombra alguna. Cabe mencionar que también son victimas las poblaciones vecinas a dichas plantaciones dado que el aire y el agua expanden la contaminación en la región provocando los mismos efectos que dañan la salud y el medio ambiente de la región, como el caso de contaminación de alimentos, problemas gastrointestinales, infecciones en la piel, malformaciones congénitas. Igualmente la generación de plagas como el caso de la “mosca chupasangre” que afecta al ganado y a las personas.
Ante esta situación, el Tribunal:
***Respalda la moratoria inmediata e indefinida a la expansión del monocultivo de piña en Costa Rica, exigida por las comunidades afectadas.
***Exige el respeto y la aplicación de la normatividad que prohíbe el cultivo de piña en determinadas zonas donde se ha realizado, así como el sobre la prohibición, uso y manejo de agrotóxicos.
***Urge al Estado costarricense, a la transnacional Pindeco y los operadores de justicia de Costa Rica para que realicen pronta y adecuada compensación e indemnización a los habitantes de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas.
***Que el gobierno de Costa Rica aplique inmediatamente las recomendaciones hechas por la Defensoría de los Habitantes en relación al caso.
Caso 3: Condicionamientos de los Cooperación Española en función de favorecer el capital trasnacional.
Este Tribunal encuentra culpable al Estado Español por prácticas de colonialismo por utilizar la Cooperación para beneficiar a sus empresas trasnacionales a costa de la deuda externa contraída por el pueblo nicaragüense.
Estas acciones se traducen en una abierta violación a los derechos humanos establecidos en el Pacto Internacional de los Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales como son:
a) Derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.
b) A la territorialidad.
c) A la Información
d) A la Libre contratación.
e) A la Libre administración de sus bienes.
La violación de los derechos anteriormente mencionados impide que el Estado Nicaragüense invierta su presupuesto en mejorar las condiciones del goce de derechos humanos de su pueblo.
Por lo anterior este Tribunal
***Considera La cooperación española condicionada mediante los créditos FAD hacia Nicaragua como un claro ejemplo de deudas ilegítimas e inmorales.
En base a los documentos recibidos y las constataciones realizadas este tribunal resuelve CONDENAR al Estado Español por la implementación de mecanismos de financiamiento a sus empresas, el cual disfraza bajo el discurso de la “cooperación” al desarrollo.
***Recomienda la realización por parte de las organizaciones sociales de Nicaragua con la colaboración del Estado Nicaragüense ( el que facilitará la documentación y los recursos necesarios y oportunos ) una auditoría social, económica y ambiental a este tipo de mecanismos de cooperación.
***Consideramos justa la demanda de los denunciantes de que en tanto las empresas transnacionales beneficiadas con los créditos FAD se retiren del país si no reparan los daños provocados a la sociedad nicaragüense.
Caso 4: Impacto de la Industria Cementera LaFarge en Honduras.
Este tribunal declara culpable al Estado de Honduras por denegación de justicia al Sindicato de Trabajadores de la Industria Cementera Hondureña, S.A. así como por la violación a los derechos civiles de los directivos que fueron despedidos desprendidos de la acción violenta realizada por la Policía Nacional y los guardias de seguridad privada al servicio de la empresa Lafarge Cementos de nacionalidad francesa y la violación sistemática de los derechos laborales y de libertad sindical que se exhibe en el presente caso.
La denegación de justicia se hace evidente cuando en ejercicio de instrumentos jurídicos establecidos en el marco del derecho interno hondureño el Sindicato recurrió para buscar justicia, no encontrándola en ninguna de las instancias incluida la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Honduras.
El Estado de Honduras también es declarado culpable por no haber realizado un juicio justo ni ha garantizado a los trabajadores los derechos establecidos en el Pacto Internacional de los Derechos Civiles y Políticos, la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, el Pacto internacional de los Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales así como todas las normas establecidas por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo para la protección del fuero sindical.
***Urgimos a la CIDH (Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos) con sede en Washington a darle mas celeridad a la investigación que resuelva la denuncia presentada por el SITRAINCESA bajo el expediente No. 925-07.
***Urgimos al Estado de Honduras para que realice una investigación que desemboque en la identificación y castigo de los prevaricadores que dentro del poder judicial han legitimado una política empresarial antisindical represiva y violenta.
Sobre las Denuncias presentadas por COPINH y Madre Tierra Honduras.
Frente a las denuncias presentadas por la Coordinadora Cívica de Organizaciones y Pueblos Indigenas de Honduras-COPINH y el grupo Madre Tierra-Amigos de la Tierra Honduras, sobre la actuación de la Union Europea (megaproyectos, legislación nacional, titulación de tierras, etc.) en el país y en relación a los impactos socio ambientales causados por la minería metálica a cielo abierto.
Recomendamos: la presentación de casos específicos con su correspondiente documentación para que el tribunal pueda pronunciarse con más elementos de juicio.
Dado en Tegucigalpa, Honduras, treinta y uno de marzo del dos mil nueve.
Lorena Zelaya Pineda – Gustavo Castro Soto/Presidente del Tribunal – Mario Godínez- David Reyes – Marcelino Martínez