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The world that the empire imposes on us

The world that the empire imposes on us

By Manuel Moncada Fonseca

What is truly serious and authentically necessary, the only thing that can represent a real solution to the multiple crisis that humanity is now going through cannot be the safeguarding of the system of "free enterprise", of capitalist civilization with all its rottenness; Nor can it be to take advantage of the crisis, as has always happened in similar moments, as a great business opportunity for a few at the cost of the ruin of millions; on the contrary, what is possible is to shake off, once and for all, the capitalist system before it destroys all forms of life on the globe.


Beyond the seemingly playful way that certain intellectuals and academics, as well as remorseful leftists, adopt to refer to the real existence of the empire (which hides their identification with it), this is neither a joke nor any trick; but a terrible reality imposed on the peoples of the earth as a whole. Wars, weapons of mass destruction, conventional, terrorism in its worst versions, drug trafficking, speculation, gambling, trafficking in women, unequal exchange and looting of the Third World constitute its main sustenance, no matter how much it appears to combat them. "Democracy", hypocrisy and false religiosity are its main masks. But it has many other ways of hiding its oppressive, interventionist and genocidal essence.

Interventions, dispossession and genocide

The least concealable of the empire are its atomic arsenals, the great diversity of weapons of mass destruction and the immeasurable amount of conventional weapons at its disposal, which threatens the entire world in a real way. The American continent is threatened with its far from innocent IV Fleet, no matter how much right-wing media in the region claim to see it make friendly visits to the countries that comprise it. [1] In all this deadly set, as in everything else, the right-wing media are in charge of praising the empire, presenting it as the champion of justice, freedom and democracy.

The empire has unlimited resources, seized from the peoples with deceit, skill and force that, later, "legitimizes" with the laws that it dictates to the world: lands, natural resources, factories, mines, energy resources, fleets, open and covert laboratories ; research centers whose results are often hidden from the world, as Monsanto does, for example. [2]

As an example of what has been raised regarding the resources that the empire takes from the peoples by force, just remember that Mexico, between 1846 and 1848, was cut off a territory of about 2.3 million km2, a little more than the surface that now it has (1,972,550 km²). [3] The character of conquest of the war against Mexico was recognized even by figures in the ruling circles of the United States. Ulysses Grant (1822-1885), who was president of this nation (1869–1877), wrote: "This war is one of the most unjust that a strong nation has ever waged against a weak one." [4]

The empire's victims have been uncountable, many millions. Here is a brief review of the genocide that it has caused:

* The First World War (1914-1918), a corollary of the contradictions between imperialist countries, killed between eight and nine million people and left some six million disabled. [5]

* In turn, the Second World War (1939-1945), which sought to resolve new and old contradictions between the imperial metropolises, killed approximately 2% of the world population at that time, about 60 million people [6], of the of which some 25 million were Soviet. [7]

* Within the framework of this war, without the US ever having recognized it and without hypocritical Europe ever denouncing it, the greatest terrorist act in history corresponds to the atomic bombing on August 6, 1945, on Hiroshima (with a balance of 140,000 people dead) and that of the 9th of the same month, over Nagasaki (with an estimated 80,000 dead). Ironically, the bombs were baptized with the names of "Litle Boy" the first, and "Fat Man", the second. [8] With its launch, Truman inaugurated the Cold War as a means of intimidating the USSR, not to defeat Japan. [9]

* In the war against Vietnam (1950-1975), the empire claimed the lives of between 2 and 5.7 million people; [10]

* In which he imposed on Korea (1950-1953), that of a million Koreans. [eleven]

It should not be overlooked that, at its dawn, capitalism perpetrated a gigantic genocide against the indigenous peoples of America and Africa:

* According to the Brazilian anthropologist Darcy Ribeiro, at the end of the 15th century, America had about 70 million inhabitants, but barely a century and a half later, its population had been reduced to about three and a half million indigenous people. [12]

* Let us also not ignore the genocide of 140 million African slaves caused by the European colonialists. [13]

Today, the empire continues to intervene territories. Iraq and Afghanistan are the most daunting examples of the moment. He used as a pretext the assumption, a thousand times denied, of weapons of mass destruction in the first of these cases; and the false one that almost no one swallows the intellectual authorship of Osama Bin Laden in the planning and execution of the events of September 11, 2001, in the second.

However, the Most Wanted Terrorists website dedicated to Osama Bin Laden clearly demonstrates “that the September 11 attacks are not among the events for which this man is sought. A member of the Truth Movement contacted FBI Headquarters to ask for an explanation. A public relations officer replied: "We have no formal evidence to link bin Laden to 9/11." [14]

In turn, Iraq's balances leave no doubt about how far the occupation of its territory is from a war based on its liberation:

* 1.5 million dead; 4.5 million displaced; between 1 and 2 million widows; five million orphans. [fifteen]

Arrogance and hypocrisy

To unleash its wars, the empire often uses the UN Security Council. In this structure, the arrogance of the United States has been wielded even by those that the international press shows as little angels. Such is the case of Collin Powell who, before a session of said warmongering body, held on the eve of the war against Iraq, declared:

* "If the Security Council is unable to take action, despite our best efforts to work with it, we must, in the best interests of our security and, we believe, the security of the region and the world, reserve the option to act with a coalition of willing nations if the Council does not act. " [16]

The structural hypocrisy of the empire has been unequivocally expressed in the torture system applied in the CIA prisons, legally established in the United States during the presidency of G.W. Bush. Resorting to euphemisms, this brutal system of breaking the human will has been covered up. Thus, instead of calling torture by name, he called himself "perfected techniques" and instead of "torturer", "expert in interrogation." Of course, this was not the responsibility of isolated individuals, acting at their own risk and risk, but rather the imperial power throughout the world, particularly in the United States and Europe. The rulers of the latter, “although they were aware of the torture and took advantage of the information thus obtained, at no time did they express the slightest protest or even indicate their disapproval. His silence amounted to consent. " [17]

It is precisely in this way that Noam Chomsky understands the matter, who argues that torture should not cause so much surprise in the United States, because it has been used routinely “from the first days of the conquest of the national territory, and even later, when Imperial raids from the 'infant empire' - as George Washington called the new republic - spread to the Philippines, Haiti, and elsewhere. ” [18]

Europe adopted the same procedure in relation to the secret flights of the CIA, in which 14 countries of this continent were involved. Regarding this imperial collusion, Sean McCormack, spokesman for the State Department, resorting to the euphemisms with which the empire tries to hide the criminal nature of its actions, argued "that the cooperation in intelligence matters of the United States with Europe and other countries < >. " [19] One more example of how the empire camouflages its actions is the fact that none of the planes used for 800 flights - declared Amnesty International - “was of military transport”. [twenty]

It remains to be seen what real attitude Barack Obama will adopt in the face of torture, but it is known that his option is the salvation of the Yankee empire. Samples in this regard have already been given and they are not few. Suffice it to know that, in his inauguration speech, he declared: “… know that the United States is a friend of all nations and all men, women and children who seek peace and dignity, and that we are ready to assume leadership again. . " [21] The first part of this statement by Obama is a mere understatement; the second expresses the real thing: recovering the leadership - read dominance - lost by the United States in various corners of the world. In our understanding, "sabed" is equivalent to "I warn you", properly to "I warn you that we are ready to regain our dominance throughout the globe."

As regards the concept of "friend", it has already been said many times what Foster Dulles argued bluntly in the 1950s: "the US has no friends, they have interests." [22] In the same vein, in 1926, Lawrence Dennis, the United States' chargé d'affaires in Nicaragua, declared: “Here it is often thought that we come to serve the interests of one against the other, but only we are wrong. we serve our interests. ”[23]

Privatization, patents, imposed debts and global injustice

The empire has a World Water Council in which transnationals such as La Nido and Coca Cola have tried to privatize this vital liquid on a planetary scale, under the screen of “helping poor countries with the necessary investments to facilitate access to water. drinking ”[24], when it is known that privatization is oriented, as a rule, to obtaining ever greater revenues at the expense of the peoples, and implies the application of the absolutist principle that only those who pay are authorized to consume what what do you need.

It is argued that the growing scarcity of water converts this vital liquid "into an economic good" that must have "an adequate price" to allocate it "efficiently" between different alternative uses. On this basis, organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), “demand the end of the supply of subsidized water and the establishment of prices that allow water supply companies, public or private, to fully recover the costs of the service. ”[25] As arguments adduced in favor of its privatization, it also raises its" decentralization ", the" participation of civil society "and" sustainable development "[26], very fashionable concepts that are used for all type of deception, intrigue, manipulation and action against the peoples.

Among an infinity of things, the empire patents ancient poses of yoga (about 2000 [27]) and the secular knowledge of the peoples.

As an illustration of the rejection of this type of practice, in June 2002, a number of peasant organizations and indigenous peoples of the Andes and the Amazon met in Lima, Peru, in order to denounce “the granting of US patents on the maca, an Andean plant […] that the indigenous peoples of the highlands of Puna, Peru, have cultivated for centuries to use as a staple food and for medicinal purposes. ” [28]

But not only plants and animals are patented, but even placentas and human cells. "European Patent EP 695 351 grants exclusive rights to the University of Edinburgh on a method to extract and select germ cells from animal and human embryos, genetically modify them and" grow "these cells to produce transgenic animals and, theoretically, transgenic humans. This patent was granted by the European Patent Office (EPO) in Munich (Germany) on December 8, 1999. " [29]

Among the perversities of the empire is the imposition of a debt of 3.36 trillion dollars on the Third World and, although the countries that comprise it have repaid 102 times what they owed in 1970, their current debts have multiplied 48 times. It is not surprising that the system has generated misery for 85% of humanity. [30] Let's see in figures the inequality that it creates on a world scale:

* "The wealth of the 500 richest people in the world is greater than the sum of the incomes of the 416 million poorest people." [31]

With respect to the unequal exchange that the capitalist system imposes on the Third World, we will only provide data that concern how Mexico, under the framework of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), has been seriously affected by it.

When the application of said treaty began in January 1994, Mexico saw an increase in poverty; their genetic diversity diminished and their nature exposed to destruction; suffered the suppression of many laws that preserved essential rights of workers in the countryside and the city; their field succumbed under the weight of unfair competition from subsidized American products and flooded their markets. In this way, Mexico went from being an exporter of sugar, corn and other items, to a buyer of transgenic sweeteners and grains. At the labor and union level, the state, in order to make the Aztec country more attractive to foreign investors, suppressed gains won in years of struggle for the workers; lowered minimum wages; allowed employers to privatize social security benefits, etc. In the fifteen years of NAFTA in force, the living conditions of Mexicans in general and, above all, that of indigenous peoples, have receded. [32]

After NAFTA was signed, the Mexican economy experienced a great decline (“the tequila crisis”), a consequence of the devaluation of the peso, which, in turn, resulted from capital flight. After several years, its growth has been much lower than expected: an average of 2% per year, with only 1% per capita, a fact recognized by the World Bank. As subsidized grasses from the United States have taken over local and regional markets in the Aztec nation, two million farmers have been displaced. Of this number, a large part now works in the fields of California, Carolina or Iowa. [33]


Ideological influence and dominance of the media

On the basis of the material dominance of the Yankee-European empire over humanity, its ideological dominance is mounted on it, thus forming two great spheres of power that are inextricably intertwined and complement each other in a complex way.

Thus it is understood that, openly or secretly, various states and governments of the world, not a few organizations of the UN, the OAS and others that operate in different latitudes, multiple religious institutions, as well as large portions of the radio, the press, and television and the cinema, schools and universities of the First and Third World, private or not, are in charge of propagandizing the omnipotence of the market, the idea of ​​privatization as a necessity and competitiveness as the supreme value. It is explained, equally; his powerful control over artistic and intellectual production in general; the facility to buy and seduce men of science and intellectuals from very diverse fields; while elsewhere he blackmails her materially and / or professionally, or simply makes her invisible.

Let us illustrate a bit what has been exposed. At the end of the Second World War, in order to counteract the Soviet influence in Europe, the United States created a network of elites in its favor. Through the CIA, it financed the Congress for the Freedom of Culture, a structure in which European intellectuals such as Raymond Aron and Michel Crozier stood out, which, during the Cold War, was charged with defining an anti-communist ideology that, in Europe, it was acceptable to both the conservative right and the reformist and socialist left. The network was reactivated by Bush and, today, it constitutes "the European sounding board of the American conservatives." [3. 4]

More to better understand the ideological power of the empire over humanity, we must refer to its monopoly control over the media, because, precisely, it is these that, par excellence, are in charge of inoculating the ideology of capitalism to humanity.

As Enrique Guinsberg notes, nowadays, the mass media, in terms of influence, not only complement but also surpass hegemonic institutions such as the family, the school and the religious. Its hegemony is felt socially, politically, economically and culturally. [35]

Miguel Guaglianone, for his part, notes that the penetration of the media, particularly television, in the daily life of large social groups, gives rise to something similar to a "continuing education system", which not only transmits biased information but, in addition to responding to the interests of those who control them, it is constituted in a set of values ​​that determines in the people under its influence, “not only their consumption patterns, but also the different aspects of their way of life, their ethical and aesthetic vision, the approach to their relationships, their life goals, their aspirations, etc. "

The same author contributes that some twelve large corporations, mostly American, own and manage more than 90% of the global diffusion. On the other hand, the concentration and the existing community of interests between corporations, "stimulate and accelerate the process of standardization of communication." In this way, the “point of view from which it is communicated and what is communicated tend to be unique and one-dimensional”. As an example, he accuses the gradual introduction on an international scale of the concept "terrorism", used by the oppressors to disqualify the forces that oppose their power. Thus, any information that is spilled on a resistance movement is categorized by the media as information on terrorism. [36] Within this panorama, the mention of Al Qaeda is inserted, only that this organization is dedicated to attacking not the occupiers, but the population of Iraq, but it is presented as if it were part of the resistance and not, as it is indeed, part of the intervention against this Arab nation. [37]

Along the same lines, the empire called the great Nicaraguan patriot A. C. Sandino and his libertarian army a bandit; as he calls the FARC terrorists, but not the current Colombian regime, Peru, or Mexico, which are submissive to him. He also places Israel on the side of the "good guys", not the Palestinian resistance. Alongside the "dark forces", he places, among other countries, Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Venezuela.

The differentiated treatment that the empire and its media give to countries based on whether or not their rulers are faithful to them, is masterfully exposed by the author Vicent Boix, acting from the alternative media. Referring to a resolution that the European Parliament (EP) signed last December against the government of Daniel Ortega, it begins to be explained based on what “has not happened” either inside or outside of Nicaragua, but clearly alluding to what Israel has done, with the open consent of the empire, against the population of Gaza and other Arab territories:

* “The Nicaraguan executive […] has not orchestrated any systematic assassinations. It has not bombed anyone. It has not violently and militarily occupied any foreign space. It does not hold thousands of political prisoners. It does not have high military technology, nor nuclear weapons of mass destruction, nor does it spread white phosphorus among the population, nor does it destroy UN schools. Nor has it assembled an economic blockade against anyone. It has not attacked or destroyed mosques, cathedrals or universities. It does not violate the resolutions, nor does it cheat the United Nations. It has not caused exiles or refugee camps. It has not dissected territories or isolated people through any wall. It has not built illegal settlements in neighboring countries, and since there are no settlers, they do not intimidate the indigenous population. He has not stolen taxes from neighboring nations. And it does not prevent the transport of humanitarian aid, food or medicine. " [38]

To manufacture their disinformation campaigns, corporations select images, words and videos, take them out of context and place them in a completely different one, thereby distorting the information, totally or partially. [39] A palpable example of this is CNN, whose journalists have been pointed out the tendency to lie in order to attack governments that do not follow orders from the White House or the European Union. Daniel Viotto, specifically, in relation to the way of transmitting the RCTV cessation, was unmasked, in part, because wanting to "prove" his version of the case, he included images that had not been recorded in Venezuela as if they had been . All for attacking the president of that South American nation and his socialist project. [40]

Thanks to the media, Woodrow Wilson, elected president of the United States in 1916, within the framework of the First World War, in just six months, was able to turn a peaceful population that did not want war at all, “into another hysterical and warmongering that he wanted to go to war and destroy everything that smelled of German, tear all Germans apart, and thus save the world ”; The same proceeded to stoke the "Red Fear", which made it possible to destroy unions and eliminate "problems as dangerous as freedom of the press or of political thought." To achieve these goals, a lot of atrocities committed by the Germans were invented; there was talk, among other things, of Belgian children with mutilated limbs. It was thus sought to "direct the thinking of most of the world." [41]

A manufactured pandemic?

Thus, the lie, an instrument that capital has used throughout its history, today takes on colossal dimensions. Press, radio and television in the hands of the empire, plus their corresponding third world replicas, have taken it to stratospheric levels. The assumption of the natural spread of the human influenza virus is the (understood) lie of the moment, but, by all signs, it is a laboratory creation. Deaths are already registered in some countries, infected by this influenza throughout the world. The United States has the highest number of the latter, but Mexico carries a higher death toll. And it is precisely here where things do not quite fit:

* Why, since the current health crisis began in Mexico and the United States, has the empire's media exposed very contradictory information in this regard, so that, sometimes, cases of death and contagion are increased and others, they are minimized ? In the first days of May, due to swine flu (today human influenza), Mexico registered 7 deaths and not 150, in addition, the cases under suspicion were of the common flu. [42] Why then without further confirmation the WHO immediately insisted on prescribing Tamiflu to everyone?

* Isn't it true that the avian flu pandemic of a few years ago was also inflated by the media to increase the profits produced by the sale of this drug?

* Is it not symptomatic that the H1N1 virus shares “genetic materials of the human, avian and swine flu viruses” or that the strange thing about the case is not properly “… the characteristics of the disease but the time of year in which it is produce more cases of flu, which in Mexico is the period between October and February? " [43]

The human influenza pandemic has certainly raised all kinds of doubts in the world. Thus, a columnist for the Diario Las Américas writes: “… there have been many contradictions. Now the order is not to close schools […], the virus is not so dangerous […]. And you know what? Historically a total of 36,000 people die each year from normal influenza. On the other hand, the disease center announces that there will be a vaccine ready for the fall "when the flu season begins." Ah… it hasn't started? " [44]

Delving into the subject, Manuel Freytas argues that, against the grain of the global media hype around human influenza, more and more questions and hypotheses arise about its origin and possible economic use. It refers to proposals around "different operations of political and military" exploitation "of the virus", with objectives ranging from a "smokescreen" that hides the global crisis, to a strategy aimed at creating a biological 9/11 that allow new invasions and "anti-terrorist wars" to be unleashed; carry out a "Malthusian" plan aimed at reducing the "surplus" poor population or apply a commercial maneuver to massively increase the demand for both medicines and preventive vaccines.

He adds that, although there are valid hypotheses that maintain that the pathogenic viruses that caused the Spanish fever in 1918, the avian flu or the swine flu, are derivatives of industrial contamination, well-founded research, as well as scientific complaints, show that originally the viruses they are programmed using genetic manipulation in military laboratories. [Four. Five]

In another article, it is argued that the global media deployment has generated global psychosis and isolation of entire countries and societies such as Mexico, despite the fact that:

* Until now, there are severe doubts among governments and international organizations regarding this pandemic, especially regarding its origin and the degree of severity and international scope that it may have.

* Gregory Hartl, spokesman for the World Health Organization (WHO), has recognized that this UN body does not yet know "why swine flu is being more serious in Mexico than in other countries where it has been detected."

* It has been categorically contradicted that the consumption of pork contains the risk of contagion with the virus. [46]

Regarding what may immediately be behind the human influenza pandemic, Narciso Isa Conde points out that the transnationals that benefit the most are Roche and Glaxo. On April 22, the first of these companies announced a collapse in its shares; but the second is not going well either. In his view, these two multinationals need to boost their production in order to reduce their losses and increase their profits. Perhaps on this stage, he points out, the emergence of the virus is not fortuitous. And he adds that marketers know perfectly that by creating a need that can be satisfied with what is offered, the market is rendered at the seller's feet. [47]

There is a certainty to which Fidel Castro refers in a reflection of May 14: “Francis Plummer, scientist at the microbiological laboratory of the Canadian State affirmed that the influenza that attacks Mexicans is a new virus not only for humans, but also for the world." [48]

Germán Velásquez, director of the Secretariat of Public Health, Innovation and Intellectual Property of the WHO, maintains for his part, that only due to the common flu in the United States 30,000 deaths a year occur, and if a parallel is made with influenza A, in the three weeks, the death toll has already reached 1,200 and 25,000 in Europe. He adds that the present flu is quite benign and poses little risk of death. [49]

Interestingly, without media coverage, for months, West Africa has endured "one of the worst outbreaks of meningitis in its history, with 1,900 deaths and more than 56,000 reported cases." To combat it, Doctors Without Borders (MSF), supported by various governments of this continent, is developing a large vaccination campaign. [fifty]

The pandemic of imperial rule

Overall, what has the empire achieved by unleashing a media campaign around human flu? At least for now, it is greatly serving that persistent logic of capital to focus on strengthening or saving the power of companies over people, especially now that the system of "free enterprise", globally, is being questioned from all its flanks. Let's see how John Brown illustrates the matter:

* “The press campaign unleashed in Europe and the United States as well as in Mexico itself serves, among other things, to make people forget the crisis of capitalism and its consequences for the majority of the population, but also to create mechanisms of obedience at times that would seem conducive to revolt. El mecanismo parece funcionar pues ha podido comprobarse, sobre todo en los países más cercanos al foco inicial, México y los Estados Unidos, el apresuramiento de la población por seguir las recomendaciones e incluso las órdenes y prohibiciones de las autoridades sin plantearse en ningún caso si están justificadas.” [51]

En definitiva, no es la influenza humana lo que en verdad amenaza de muerte a la humanidad. La única pandemia que puede ponerle fin a su existencia y a todo vestigio de vida sobre la tierra es el capitalismo que, desesperado ante la crisis que está estremeciéndolo de raíz a escala global, trata de sobrevivir a costa de lo que sea.

A nuestro juicio, por ahora, la pandemia de influenza humana es en primera instancia un esfuerzo para detener las quiebras masivas de grandes empresas transnacionales, pero mañana puede volverse una pesadilla sin nombre que resulte del empleo de armas bacteriológicas capaces de cobrar la vida de una buena parte de la población mundial; del uso de armas químicas en extremo mortíferas o de la materialización de la amenaza imperial de bombardear atómicamente a muchos “rincones oscuros” del planeta.

Sin embargo, aun cuando no hubiese mano genocida de por medio, tarde o temprano, la destrucción de la vida planetaria puede sobrevenir como resultado del maltrato que el capitalismo ha dado a la tierra y sus recursos, sobre todo a causa del calentamiento que la acción irracional del mismo sobre la naturaleza y sus recursos ha generado. ¿Qué sentido tiene entonces seguir jugando con fuego, si de antemano sabemos que las cosas se encuentran ya en un alto nivel de riesgo?

Lo verdaderamente serio y auténticamente necesario, lo único que puede representar una salida real a la crisis múltiple por la que ahora atraviesa la humanidad no puede ser la salvaguarda del sistema de “libre empresa”, de la civilización capitalista con toda su podredumbre; tampoco puede ser la de aprovechar la crisis, como ha ocurrido siempre en momentos semejantes, como una gran oportunidad de negocios para unos cuantos a costa de la ruina de millones; por el contrario, lo que cabe es sacudirse, de una vez por todas, el sistema capitalista antes de que el mismo acabe con toda forma de vida sobre el orbe.

Notes:

[1]. “Surcando el caribe en el USS Kearsarge”.
http://impreso.elnuevodiario.com.ni/2006/06/25/politica/22612

[2]. Consúltese, por ejemplo: RAPAL-VE. “Monsanto ocultó datos que revelan riesgos para la salud del maíz transgénico MON 863”
http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=21479

[3]. I. Kumarian. “La Agresión de EE.UU contra México (1846-1848)”. En: Historia de las Intervenciones Norteamericanas. Tomo II. Redacción de “Ciencias Sociales Contemporáneas”. Academia de Ciencias de la URSS. Moscú , 1982. p. 63.

[4]. Ibíd. Véase igualmente Wikipedia. “Ulysses S. Grant”.
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant

[5]. Wikipedia. ”Primera Guerra Mundial”.
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/1%C2%AA_Guerra_Mundial

[6]. “Segunda Guerra Mundial”.
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/2%C2%AA_Guerra_Mundial

[7]. "La Gran Guerra Patria (1941-1945)".
http://www.monografias.com/trabajos55/gran-guerra-pa(…)

[8]. “Bombardeo Atómico sobre Hiroshima y Nagasaki”.
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombardeos_at%C3%B3micos_sobre(…)

[9]. "Hiroshima y Nagasaki".
http://www.ajzanier.com.ar/hiroshima.htm

[10]. “Guerra de Vietnam”.
http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerra_de_Vietnam

[eleven]. Taringa. “Fotos de la Guerra de Corea”.
http://www.taringa.net/posts/1649525

[12]. Daniel E. Benadava. "Más de 500 años de “Genocidio Indígena” en América".
http://www.ciudadredonda.org/subsecc_ma_d.php?sscd=7&scd=2&id=1408

[13]. José Carlos García Fajardo. "Para no olvidar el comercio de esclavos".
http://www.ucm.es/info/solidarios/ccs/(…)

[14]. David Ray Griffin: “Un nuevo enfoque sobre el 11 de septiembre”.
http://www.voltairenet.org/article159849.html

[15]. John Tirman. “El espeluznante costo de la guerra de Iraq. ¿Y ahora qué?”
http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=80204

[16]. Reuters. “Colin Powell afirma que EEUU irá a la guerra con o sin el apoyo de las Naciones Unidas”.
http://www.aporrea.org/actualidad/n5468.html

[17]. Tzvetan Todorov. “Los torturadores intelectuales de Bush”. El Nuevo Diario. Opinión Internacional. Domingo, 17 de mayo de 2009.

[18]. Noam Chomsky. “Una tradición de tortura”.
http://www.boltxe.info/berria/?p=12964

[19]. The world. “EEUU rechaza el informe europeo sobre los vuelos secretos de la CIA ”.
http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2006/06/07/internacional/1149712078.html
[20]. “Amnistía Internacional denuncia que 800 vuelos secretos de la CIA sobrevolaron Europa”.
http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2005/12/05/internacional/1133805463.html

[21]. El País. “Discurso inaugural del presidente Barack Obama en español”.
http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internacional/Discurso/(…)

[22]. Pedro Echeverría V. "¡Los EEUU no tienen amigos tienen intereses! ¡entiéndanlo!"
http://www.aporrea.org/internacionales/a75009.html

[23]. Citado por Carlos Fonseca. Obras. Tomo 2. Editorial Nueva Nicaragua. 1982, p. 46.

[24]. "Los ministros eluden en el Foro Mundial del Agua el compromiso de ayudar a los países pobres.
http://www.elpais.com/articulo/sociedad/ministros/(…)

[25]. Eric Tello. "El interrogante – El agua: ¿Un derecho o un servicio?".
http://mediambient.gencat.net/cat/el_departament/revista/(…)

[26]. Carmelo Ruiz Marrero. "La Privatización del agua en América Latina".
http://www.agua.org.mx/content/view/2006/162/

[27] "Entrevista a Richard Stallman".
http://148.204.67.60/?p=59

[28]. "Agricultores y pueblos indígenas del Perú denuncian patentes sobre maca".
http://www.etcgroup.org/upload/publication/pdf_file/193

[29]. Greenpeace. "Patente genética".
http://www.astrolabio.net/planeta/articulos/98264488567119.html

[30]. Pauline Imbach. “Un mundo de esclavitud maquillado al gusto de nuestra época”.
http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=85303

[31] Ibíd.

[32]. Martín Cazáres. “Los efectos negativos del TLCAN en México que olvidó Calderón”.
http://ciudadania-express.com/2009/01/los-efectos-negativos-del-tlcan-en-mexico-que-olvido-calderon/

[33]. Laura Carlsen. “TLCAN: Inequidad e inmigración”.
http://www.ircamericas.org/esp/4747

[34]. Denis Boneau. “Cuando la CIA financiaba a los intelectuales europeos’’.
http://www.voltairenet.org/article126492.html

[35]. Enrique Guinsberg. “El sujeto mediático/2: Hegemonía de los medios”.
http://www.elsigma.com/site/detalle.asp?IdContenido=1845

[36]. Miguel Guaglianone. “Sociedad globalizada y medios de comunicación”.
http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=56906

[37]. Eduardo Luque. Mundo Obrero. Entrevista a Abu Mohamed, portavoz del partido Baaz y del Frente Patriótico Nacionalista e Islámico: "Al Qaeda no forma de parte de la resistencia sino de la ocupación".
http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=85174

[38] . Vicent Boix. “Gaza y Managua en el punto de mira de la Unión Europea ”.
http://alainet.org/active/28650

[39]. Fernando Arellano Ortiz. “Medios de comunicación contra gobiernos progresistas en América Latina”.
http://www.visionesalternativas.com/index.php?optio(…)

[40]. Manuel Rugeles Acevedo. “ LA COLUMNácida ”.
http://www.aporrea.org/actualidad/a35505.html

[41]. “El control de los medios de comunicación”.
https://www.ecoportal.net/content/view/full/26797

[42]. F. William Engdahl. “Cerdos voladores, Tamiflu y granjas industriales”.
http://www.lahaine.org/index.php?p=37648

[43]. Ibíd.

[44]. Eucario Bermúdez. “La gripe y las dudas”.
http://www.diariolasamericas.com/news.php?nid=77587&pag=1

[45]. Manuel Freytas. “Cómo y para qué se fabricó la gripe porcina: El rol del Pentágono”.
http://www.insurgente.org/modules.php?name=News&file=a(…)

[46]. ¿Quién los controla?: La manipulación mediática con la psicosis de la "gripe porcina"
http://www.iarnoticias.com/2009/secciones/(…)

[47]. Narciso Isa Conde. Gripe A-HINI y capitalismo actual.
http://www.kaosenlared.net/noticia/gripe-hini-capitalismo-actual

[48]. Fidel Castro Ruz. “Otra noticia que estremeció al mundo”.
http://www.cubadebate.cu/index.php?tpl=design/especiales.(…)

[49]. Gripe A: El lucro a costa de la salud.
http://www.viejoblues.com/Bitacora/gripe-a-lucro-a-costa-de-salud

[50]. “Una epidemia de la que no se habla”.
http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internacional/epide(…)

[51] John Brown. “El Leviatán porcino o los albores del capitalismo verde”.
http://www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=85469


Video: Empires official Lyric video -- Hillsong UNITED (May 2021).