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The disastrous monocultures. Oil palm production in Chiapas

The disastrous monocultures. Oil palm production in Chiapas

By Gustavo Castro Soto

The thousands of hectares of African palm not only imply maintaining deforestation but increasing CO2, and increasing water pollution with agrochemicals in regions of high biodiversity such as biosphere regions and the Lacandon jungle. The degradation of forests diminishes their functions in climate matters and their disappearance affects humanity as a whole "


Oil palm production in Chiapas.

The first crops arrived with the Berntoff family in 1948 and they installed a small extractor, Aceitera La Lima, for the fresh fruit process in 1970. This had a capacity to process 2 tons per hour. Between 1990 and 1991, the Oil Palm Program began in 4 municipalities of the Soconusco region located in 26 localities and with the participation of 425 producers with plantations on 2,500 hectares. Until 1996 the program remained inactive and the armed conflict in Chiapas crossed over at this time. Starting in 1997, the momentum of palm plantations was resumed with the participation of the states of Veracruz and Tabasco. (1)

Currently, in Chiapas, plantations have been established in two regions: Soconusco and Selva.

When defining the Master Plan in 2004, 16,829.75 hectares of palm in Chiapas were counted, today there are more than 40 thousand, it is expected to reach 100 thousand in 2012 and a potential of more than 900 thousand hectares is calculated throughout Chiapas.


Chiapas continues to be the main oil palm producing state in Mexico, the one with the highest yield and with a lot of government subsidy. The yield per hectare of fresh fruit ranges between 18 and 20 tons per year. There are 7 extraction plants in 4 different municipalities, of which only one is of social capital and the others are private. These plants have the capacity to process tons of fresh fruit up to 881,280 tons. There are too many for local production and therefore between 50 and 70% of its installed capacity is not used. At the beginning of the Rector Plan of the Chiapas Oil Palm Product System 2004-2014, approximately 131,611 tons of fresh fruit are harvested per year while there was the capacity to process 322 thousand tons. For this reason, the producers mention that the industrialists pay 13% or 15% of the price of the ton of Crude Oil, in order to monopolize the largest amount of Fresh Fruit possible and increase the average yield of their industries. All the production of Fruta Fresca is sold to the Chiapas industry and in turn they sell the crude oil to refiners in other states that is used for the production of approximately 900 final products. There are no data to calculate percapital consumption in Chiapas. (2)

Chiapas has six nurseries that, according to the Institute for the Promotion of Tropical Agriculture (IFAT), are "the largest in Latin America", located in the municipalities of Acapetahua, Mapstepec, Marqués de Comillas, Zamora Pico de Oro and Palenque. These nurseries have one million 691 thousand plants. Mainly women work there. (3) There are also 5,000 palm producers who, according to IFAT, each collect around 30,000 pesos per hectare. (4)

Despite everything, the Master Plan recognizes many weaknesses of the Product System. There are not enough trained personnel to manage plantations. The cost of transportation is high, the productive units are small and dispersed; the ejidatarios are not well organized, they do not have good planning and the link between them and the plant entrepreneurs is not optimal. Lack
irrigation infrastructure and better coordination between the actors in the production chain. (5)

Government actions to expand plantations.

The Chiapas government insists that palm plantations are the alternative. At the beginning of the Master Plan, in 2004, the state governor met with Guatemalan businessmen producing African palm with investments in the state of Chiapas. (6) It should be noted that on the other side of the border, palm plantations in the Guatemalan territory stretch for thousands of hectares.

Since that date the Master Plan began, the growth process of the plantations has been dangerously accelerated.

In 2007, 5,000 more hectares of palm were planted. (7) For this, the government delivered 143 non-motorized transportation equipment in the municipality of Acapetahua for an amount of 1,890,000 pesos to boost the plantations. (8) For its part, the Promotora de Palma del Soconusco, SA de C.V. acquired an indefinite authorization on Atmospheric Emissions for its African Palm Oil Extraction Plant. (9) At the end of the same year, Governor Juan Sabines made the "First Report-Bioenergetics 2007" where he established that the Bioenergetics Commission would carry out carry out actions for the promotion, organization, technical assistance and financing of biodiesel production modules of 2,000 hectares of oil palm with extraction plants with the capacity to process 10 tons of fresh fruit bunch per hour and 20 thousand liters per day. As of this year, the African palm is incorporated into the production of agro-fuel.

By 2008, the state government increased an additional 11 thousand hectares of African palm planting to add a total of 30 thousand hectares. For this, the governor delivered 750,000 African palm biodiesel plants. ”(10) Later, he delivered more than 18,000 oil palm plants to be planted on 129 hectares in the municipality of Ostuacán. Within the Program for Productive Reconversion of Forest Plantations, support was granted for a total amount of 6 million 300 thousand pesos. It should be noted that the first Sustainable Rural City, Nuevo Juan del Grijalva, has been built in Ostuacán, made up of the victims of the November 2007 floods. Thus, emptying the territory of settlers, concentrating them, and creating plantations. (11) By 2008 He calculated that the production per hectare of palm already reached 20 tons per year, which would achieve annual profits of 100 million pesos. (12)

The institutions that support the plantations and the legal and operational framework.

Among the organizations that have supported the cultivation of Oil Palm are the Instituted Trusts in Relation to Agriculture (FIRA) that supports production, industrialization, trade and services in the following types of credit: Refactionary up to 20 years in long-term projects; Avio for up to 36 months (raw materials and materials, wages, salaries and direct expenses), and Pledge up to 180 days. Within the Shared Risk Fund for the Promotion of Agribusiness (FOMAGRO), the Shared Risk Trust (FIRCO) can make direct contributions in Projects, up to 5 million, with a zero rate and recoverable in 3 years. Within the Program to Access the Financial System (PASSFIR), the establishment of liquid guarantees to farms has been supported, up to $ 200,000 per farm, without recovery and applicable as seed capital. (13) Finally, we highlight COPLANTA, the government institution of Chiapas that manages the plantation project in the state and where subsidies are processed through the Alianza Contigo program.

Among the legal and operational framework are: Law of Sustainable Rural Development, Organic Law of Rural Finance, PROCAMPO Capitalization Law, Law of Energy for the Field, Law of
Agricultural Planning, Sustainable Rural Development Law (LDRS) and National Water Law and its regulations regarding any exploitation and type of use that is made of the waters
surface and underground, as well as their federal zones. (14)

Government programs.

There have also been various government programs of direct support to producers for productive reconversion; of commercial promotion and promotion of exports; the PROCAMPO and
Alliance for the Field. The government has provided advice and other management, promotion, dispute resolution and agri-food counseling services; promotion of investment and capitalization; support for Productive Rural Investment Projects, Capacity Development, Strengthening of Companies and Organizations in rural areas, etc. The government offers financial support for those actors that join the production chain with the acquisition of machinery; infrastructure of up to 4 million without interest, consulting and training of 50 to 100,000 pesos without recovery, innovation projects up to 4 million without recovery, etc.

The European Union.

The European Union also promotes African palm plantations in Chiapas as of 2005. In the PRODESIS project, within the heading "Strategic Systems of Sustainable Production", studies were contracted to analyze the viability of technological innovations in self-regulation for the establishment of the African palm and food security (sic). (15) More specifically, palm plantations are advancing with the support of the European Union in the Buffer zone of the Lacandona Forest and in the municipality of Marqués de Comillas in the buffer zone of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve, on the border with Guatemala. In this region the government tried to promote plantations since 1997 but they were abandoned and destroyed by the producers due to the lack of support and advice on African palm. The reasons that PRODESIS raises are very simple: that there is a lot of demand for oil palm, that it is good business, that there is enough land and that there is government support, as always, and without which palm plantations in the world would not were profitable. (16)

Prodesis calculated in 2005 that the price for the ton of fresh fruit in the extraction plants of Palenque was $ 580.00. With 976 producers in the jungle area, with the productive potential of the area planted in the region plus that of the European Union project, production was calculated at 74,592 metric tons per year, which would supply only 71% of the two extraction plants of Palenque.


Future projections.

The Master Plan has already been exceeded. For 2009, the government of the state of Chiapas, within the framework of the so-called productive reconversion that implies eliminating food sovereignty, announced that it would allocate 83 million pesos, which will expand an additional 11 thousand hectares, which is equivalent to an increase of 58 % in relation to the accumulated in 2007, which were 19 thousand hectares. (17) Then the federal government announced that the Chiapas countryside would receive 300 million pesos for more profitable crops than corn, such as the African palm. (18)

This year another 15 thousand hectares of African palm were expanded, which would reach a total of 44 thousand with the expectation of allocating its production also to the agrofuel market. (19)

By 2012, the governor intends to reach a total of 100,000 hectares planted with African palm in Chiapas: “As a decided commitment with the African palm organizations, my administration has contemplated planting 100,000 hectares, this will mean an income of three one billion pesos for Chiapas producers. ”(20)

With the Soconusco plantations, an economic income of about 80 million pesos is generated, but the growth expectation for 2010 could be higher than 500 million pesos and in the entity, if the expectations of reaching one hundred thousand hectares are met, already producing, they would be reaching one hundred thousand million pesos. In the Soconusco region the government identifies a potential of 300 thousand hectares suitable for palm cultivation and another 600 thousand are located in the Jungle and North where "lost soils that were dedicated to self-consumption agriculture and agriculture will be recovered. livestock ". (21) Therefore, in this region of Tapachula, it will be where the biofuel plant -biodiesel- will be installed within the framework of the Mesoamerica Project (formerly Plan Puebla Panama) and the agreement on biofuels signed by the presidents of Colombia Álvaro Uribe and Felipe Calderón from Mexico. This plant would be fed with the production of pine nuts, African palm, fig trees and other products that are produced on the coast. (22)

The impacts of oil palm plantations.

The Federal and Chiapas governments affirm that palm plantations are being installed on hectares previously deforested by cattle ranching and other activities that are no longer profitable. However, the goal of achieving 100,000 hectares in three more years, and the dream of projecting more than 900,000 hectares with a vocation in the state, makes it clear that they will continue to destroy jungles, forests and other ecosystems. If many activities have ceased to be “profitable” for the business market, it has been because the government has abandoned the field, to small producers and, in the logic of Free Trade Agreements, focusing not on food sovereignty but on the market of agribusiness.

The small producer, the peasant and the indigenous are left over unless they insert themselves into this new dynamic of handing over their cheap labor, their land and subsidizing the profits of the agribusiness with their work. From this perspective, African palm is not profitable either if it did not have large subsidies from governments, producers, the World Bank (WB) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).

Environmental costs ...

Since 2004, the government has already admitted that adequate analyzes of palm varieties were not carried out according to regional agronomic characteristics, so that different planted varieties were found and their performance or performance was not verified. On the other hand, the thousands of hectares of African palm not only imply maintaining deforestation but also increasing CO2, and increasing water pollution with agrochemicals in regions of high biodiversity such as the biosphere regions and the Lacandon jungle. On the other hand, it does not help anything, but on the contrary, to recover the production of honey on which thousands of beekeepers depend. (23) The crisis of beekeepers in Chiapas has fallen and is getting worse and more to the extent that the plantations. The degradation of forests diminishes their functions in climatic matters and their disappearance affects humanity as a whole ”. (24)

The more than 11 thousand people that inhabit the municipality of Marqués de Comillas consume more than 82 thousand cubic meters of water per year, most of them from underground sources through wells due to the lack of drinking water service. Starting a few years ago, the water service in the region has been gradually expanded, now including meters in new housing projects. Faced with this situation, palm plantations, large consumers of water, aggravate the availability of water in the region.

It is in this same region of the Montes Azules jungle, of 220 thousand hectares, that 80% has already been deforested. To contain it, it is intended to create "protection cords through high-impact productive projects such as African palm, rubber, citrus fruits and protected agriculture." Only for the African palm, they are promoting the planting of 5,000 hectares in Marqués de Comillas out of the 30,000 that are intended for it in a region where there is no effective environmental control. This despite the fact that the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Forests identified as causes of deforestation and forest degradation, government policies to replace forests with industrial tree plantations -such as oil palm-, as well as the advance of the agricultural frontier pushed by monoculture plantations.

The lands…

According to the words of Governor Juan Sabines Guerrero, the cultivation of the African Palm is the future of Mexico and for this it allocates large subsidies and support. Presenting it like this has led the peasants of the Escuintla municipality, “regretting that they do not have the type of arable land. The Escuintla peasants have first-rate lands, but they are all cultivated with bananas, cocoa, mangoes and corn (…) it is a pity that in Escuintla there are no free lands for this and other crops, ”commented the peasants Juan Vera and Moisés Ventura. ( 25) Thus, promises of support generate reactions among the peasant sector, as has happened at the time with livestock and other projects of supposed agrarian development. Tomorrow they will tell you that the most profitable thing is to conserve the forests before expanding the plantations. For example, in the context of the application of REDD credits, conserving the rainforest in Indonesia would be more profitable than cutting it down for African palm plantations if a ton of CO2 in the carbon credit market cost between 10 and 33 dollars. (26)

But, regardless of all of the above, one of the significant indicators in Chiapas is progress in the privatization of ejidos and communal lands. If this is not done, the government identifies it as "there is no security in land tenure."

The government's strategy to gain ground for the African palm is to lower support to other sectors to drive them towards these plantations. In the municipality of Villa de Acapetahua, given the low price of cattle, little government support, and high maintenance costs, several of the small farmers intend to join the cultivation of African Palm. (27) In the municipality of Villa Comaltitlán, which was one of the main cattle breeding areas along with other municipalities on the Coast, even exported cattle to the center and north of the country, confirm that the fall in livestock “was not due to the negligence of the producers. , if not rather to the arrival of other types of crops where it cannot be combined with livestock. For example, the cultivation of bananas and African palm has taken away space, which implies a decrease in cattle raising. ”(28)


Climate change…

Researchers say that the production of a ton of palm oil in peatlands generates 15 to 70 tons of CO2 in the 25 years of the productive life of the palm as a result of the conversion of forests, the decomposition of peat from fires and emissions associated with settlement land. (29) "Emission from forest conversion clearly exceeds the carbon fixation potential of oil palm plantations. Conversion of forests to oil palm monoculture causes a net release of approximately 650 Mg equivalent of carbon dioxide per hectare (…) ”. (30)" The conversion of one hectare of peat forest generates more than 1,300 Mg in CO2 emissions during the first 25 years of the palm growth cycle oil can. Depending on the depth of the peat, the continuous decomposition increases the emission of each cycle by a magnitude of 800 Mg of CO2 per hectare ". (31)

From another angle, it takes more years to sequester carbon compared to the 25 years of productive life of the African palm in which it supposedly sequesters carbon significantly.

On peat soils, the carbon balance is even less favorable for oil palm plantations due to drainage emissions. Therefore, palm plantations do not store more carbon than forests. Every ton of palm oil produced emits 33 tons of CO2 (9 tons of carbon), approximately 10 times higher than that of normal diesel. Therefore, in addition to degrading the environment, affecting peat areas, not reforesting, and erroneously equating forests with plantations, Chiapas will contribute more CO2 for climate change.

Agrochemicals ...

There are 143 plants per hectare (the appropriate distance is 9m between plants and 1.8m between rows, planted in a staggered pattern) to which insecticides such as endosulfan and other chemicals such as rodenticides are spilled. The plantations do not have adequate maintenance, especially in the application of fertilizers, pest control and the re-establishment of new plantations. And there is an inadequate handling of technological packages. (32)

In the Lacandon Jungle region, the Lacantún River usually overflows in the face of hurricanes that will endanger the plantations of the local farmers and will more easily disperse the amount of agrochemicals it uses in an area rich in biodiversity. For this reason, this type of monoculture is not environmentally sustainable in neighboring places or in buffer regions.

Few serious scientists in themselves claim that oil palm plantations store more carbon than natural tropical forests since, on the contrary, they produce more greenhouse gas emissions relative to natural forests. If we include the use of fertilizers and methane emissions from the transformation of forests into plantations, the climate impact is even greater.

Labor conditions…

In 2008 a group of workers from the oil plant AGROIMSA, S.A. DE C.V. in the municipality of Mapstepec they were repressed by the security forces, some of their leaders and an adviser were arrested. The union leaders were also fired, so 42 of the 64 workers refused to work. In the end, several leaders were imprisoned. (33)

In other labor aspects, for the harvest, in many cases the producers do not have the appropriate tools (Malaysian knives, others) to make the process more efficient, so it is expected that harvesting costs will increase when they are of age. its maximum production capacity (9 years). In other cases, they do not have the training for harvesting, nor adequate technical advice and training for the cultivation, control and integral management of the plantations.

Although the Master Plan boasts of the existence of a large labor force, it regrets that "The producer's work culture limits the management of the plantation, the producer lacks the habits and economic resources to carry out the items of plantation maintenance." As if that were not enough, peasant and indigenous producers do not have contracts or agreements, nor are there differences in prices due to the quality of the product they deliver. In the case of the Extraction Plant of the Palma Tica deMéxico, S.A. It has offered seedlings to producers but on credit and on the condition that the producer only sells his harvest with this Plant. On the other hand, to save business expenses, it was proposed to incorporate the producers of the Oil Palm Product System as partners, through the purchase of shares in an extraction plant. (34)

Little information, little access ...

The producers are unaware of the programs and mechanisms to access the resources by the producers. The peasants and indigenous people do not know how to set the prices for the ton of their fresh fruit, so mistrust is generated with the industrial entrepreneurs; They do not have access to information on international prices and are at the mercy of businessmen. The Chiapas Master Plan has the false expectation of achieving fair prices and increasing the profitability of the participants in the production chain, zoning the supply, consolidating the organization of producers, marketers and agroindustrial companies when the three levels are in strong weakness. The producers do not have enough credits and other financial services because they do not have guarantees from the banks or because they have overdue portfolios. A comprehensive regionalized and validated technological package is not applied for oil palm in Chiapas. There is a lack of a plan for the establishment of new plantations and the maintenance of existing ones, while the governor distributes seedlings everywhere, inviting peasants and indigenous people to abandon the corn and join the plantations.

Unkept promises…

The resources that the government allocates to the producers through the programs are received at the wrong time. At the end of 2007, African palm producers denounced the delay in the payment of IFAT support in Acapetahua. (35) And in the Marqués de Comillas region, the government tried to promote plantations since 1997 but they were abandoned and destroyed by the producers due to the lack of support and advice on African palm. (36) They lost their other crops.

Costs and infrastructure ...

The producer has to take the product to the extraction plant and in this way almost 40% of the cost of the final price is lost just in transport. The roads to the plantations and extraction plants are not adequate, there are not enough collection centers and they do not have the necessary vehicles. In addition, if the roads are bad, they depend on government projects to fix them, so the businessman who owns the plant always comes out ahead and is the most subsidized of all in the production chain. In the municipality of Acapetahua, Mr. Manuel Jiménez expressed his dissatisfaction and that "the main culprits of destroying roads and highways are heavy cargo carriers, since with their trucks loaded with stone, cane and African palm fruit they cause the damage . ”(37) In the municipal capital of Mapstepec,“ Due to the ditching to introduce the drainage, the land sank (…) in the neighborhood of September 15 and now it hinders vehicular traffic as well as great dust clouds and affects the health of the neighbors". The residents of the neighborhood, Gabriel Colón and Elio Ventura, sued the City Council chaired by Gamaliel Estrada Moguel to fix the street that is heavily trafficked, mainly by trucks loaded with African palm that go to the oil plant. (38)

Bad earnings ...

With the plantations, there is no improvement in the living conditions of the population.

In Acapetahua, despite the wealth that exists in the region, starting with livestock, fruit growing and agriculture, for example, “most of the peasants are going through the worst economic crisis (…) The Colonia Soconusco, is a of the main producers of banana, cocoa, African palm and mango. ”(39) According to IFAT, a producer captures around 30 thousand pesos per hectare. (40)

The profit is equivalent to almost two minimum wages, which in Mexico is the same as saying nothing. However, studies by the Fundación Produce Chiapas provide another piece of information and establish that "an average ejido producer with seven hectares and an average production of 19 tons per hectare, obtains income of more than one hundred thousand pesos per year" that would be equivalent to 274 pesos per day ( 21 dollars), that is, they are equivalent to 39 pesos per day per hectare, less than the minimum wage per hectare.

In the annual investment to establish a hectare of palm, the technological package costs the producer around 6,500 pesos, which is equivalent to 17 pesos a day (around 1.3 dollars a day).

Includes sowing (preparing the land, buying the seedling, weed control, street cleaning, herbicides and their application, manual setting), fertilization, pest control, pruning, equipment and services.

A third of the cost goes to herbicides, pest control, fertilizers, rodenticides. On the other hand, during the first three years there is no production or harvest, and until the eighth year it is harvested at 100%.

In these three years the investment cost is more than 12 thousand pesos and in the fourth year that for the first time it sells some fruit, it continues to have a deficit of 16 thousand pesos. During production, the annual investment per hectare of palm is 9,125 pesos, which is equivalent to 25 pesos a day (approximately 2 dollars), which is paid to an indigenous or peasant in Chiapas for the daily work wage. It involves sowing, fertilization and application, pest control and application, pruning, harvesting, equipment, and technical assistance services. (41) It is this cheap labor that also subsidizes products.

One of the resources used by peasant producers is to obtain advance payment from Procampo, which for so many years has been financed by the World Bank and the IDB to invest in African palm plantations. This program started from the beginning of the FTA with the United States and Canada in order to deliver a certain amount of annual cash to farmers and indigenous people for each hectare of corn planted to supposedly improve their production and competitiveness in the context of the FTA. However, this served for years for the poor to obtain other goods necessary to combat poverty rather than to compete against the corn of Monsanto and other multinationals highly subsidized by the United States.

There is no doubt that big business is done on the backs of the poorest, on their lands and territories and at the cost of the common goods of humanity. Enough of monocultures!

Gustavo Castro Soto placeholder image - Otros Mundos, AC / Friends of the Earth Mexico - www.otrosmundoschiapas.org; San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico; June 12, 2009 - San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico

Para más información y consulta:

-Oil World. The Independent Forecasting Service for Oilseeds, Oils & Meals. Providing Primary Information –Professional Analysis. © Copyright 2004 ISTA Mielke GmbH. All Rights Reserved. Date: Aug 2004 Legal Terms http://www.oilworld.com

-Food and Agricultura Organization (F.A.O.). Base de Datos Estadísticos.
www.fao.org/waicent/portal/statistic_es.asp ; Centro de Información Agraria Mundial; Consejo de Promoción de Palma de Aceite de Malasia, MPOPC. www.mpopc.org,my/; World Wild Life Organization: http://www.wwf.org.mx/noticia_helado_elefantes.php

-Revista Aniame, XVIII Vol. 9, Número 45, Abril-junio de 2004.

-Secretaría de Economía. www.economia.gob.mx; Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. Anuario Estadístico de la Producción Agrícola de México 2003.

-Coplanta. Secretaría de Desarrollo Rural del Estado de Chiapas; Plan Estatal de Desarrollo 2000-2006, Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas; Programa de Palma de Aceite del Estado de Chiapas; Sagarpa, Fomento Agrícola, Delegación Chiapas; Fondo Chiapas; Boletines del gobierno de Chiapas 3684, 2111, 1796, 4963, www.cocoso.chiapas.gob.mx; Análisis de sectores de diversificación, Palma Africana. Chiapas Visión 2020. www.chiapasvision2020.org ; Fundación Produce, Inifap, Cofupro; Estudio de la Cadena Agroalimentaria e Industrial de la Palma de Aceite; Palma de Aceite en el Sureste Mexicano, Reportaje/Métodos Globales Respuestas Locales/ANIAME, s/f

-Sedafop. Gobierno del Estado de Tabasco; Plan Estatal de Desarrollo del Estado de Tabasco; Sedarpa. Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz; Sagarpa, Delegación Veracruz.; Vivas, Dr. Martín Tucuch Cauich. Campeche, Mayo de 2003.

-Consultores en Estrategia Pública, S.C.; Aceites de Palma, S.A. de C.V.

References:

(1) Plan Rector del Sistema Producto Palma de Aceite de Chiapas 2004-2014, Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas, SDR, Fomento Económico de Chiapas AC.

(2) Ibid.

(3) Palma de Aceite en el Sureste Mexicano, Reportaje/Métodos Globales Respuestas Locales/ANIAME, s/f

(4) Comunicado 1184, Op. Cit, declaración de Salim Rodríguez Salomón del Instituto del Fomento para la Agricultura Tropical.

(5) Plan Rector, Op. Cit.

(6) 30 de Agosto de 2004 Guatemala, Guatemala, sábado, 28 de Agosto de 2004. Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas. Boletín: 1939.

(7) Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Notimex. mayo 11, 2008

(8) En representación del gobernador del estado Juan Sabines Guerrero, el secretario del Campo, Ernesto Gutiérrez Villanueva, acompañado del alcalde de Acapetahua, Ariel Espinosa Domínguez, 02 de Mayo de 2007.

(9) Autorizaciones otorgadas en Materia de Impacto y/o Riesgo Ambiental y en Materia de Emisiones Atmosféricas. Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas, Instituto de Historia Natural y Ecología, Dirección de Protección Ambiental, Departamento de Regulación Ambiental. 30 de Octubre del 2007. Lic. Claudia Patricia Sántiz Sánchez. Enlace de Información.

(10) Comunicado 1184, Gobierno del estado de Chiapas, 05 de Abril de 2008.

(11) Domingo 31 de Agosto de 2008, visita del gobernador Juan Sabines a Ostuacán para la entrega de proyectos de más de 20 millones de pesos.

(12) Declaración de Salim Rodríguez Salomón del Instituto del Fomento para la Agricultura Tropical, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Notimex. mayo 11, 2008

(13) Plan Rector, Op. Cit.

(14) Proyecto: Establecimiento de plantaciones de Palma Africana en el Municipio de Marqués de Comillas. ESTUDIO DE VIABILIDAD PLANTACIONES DE PALMA AFRICANA EN LA REGIÓN DE LA SELVA, GOBIERNO DEL ESTADO DE CHIAPAS- COMISION DE LAS COMUNIDADES EUROPEAS (PRODESIS, SDS).

(15) Presentación del Consejo Consultivo, Proyecto “Desarrollo Social Integrado y Sostenible, Chiapas, México” (PRODESIS) 2004-2007, 12 de mayo de 2006. Gobierno de Chiapas y la Unión Europea.

(16) Proyecto: Establecimiento de plantaciones de Palma Africana en el Municipio de Marqués de Comillas. Op. Cit.

(17) Información del subsecretario de Comercialización de la Secretaría del Campo (Secam), Wenceslao López. Notimex, 20 de Enero de 2009.

(18) Dante López Amador, director jurídico de la delegación de la Secretaría de Agricultura, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación (Sagarpa), 20 de Diciembre de 2008.

(19) Declaraciones del coordinador general del dependiente de la Secretaría del Campo, Salim Rodríguez Salomón.

(20) Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas, Comunicado 1184, Op. Cit.

(21) Declaraciones de Amílcar Fernández Archiva, gerente del Programa Palma Africana del IFAT.

(22) Alberto de la Cruz Aguilar; EL ORBE/ lunes, 02 de marzo de 2009.

(23) http://www.sagarpa.gob.mx/dlg/chiapas/ganaderia/abeja.htm

(24) Declaración internacional en contra de la ‘Mesa Redonda de Aceite de Palma Sostenible’ (RSPO) En defensa de los Derechos Humanos, la Soberanía Alimentaria, la Biodiversidad y la Justicia Climática:
http://www.wrm.org.uy/temas/Agrocombustibles/Declaracion_Internacional_RSPO.html

(25) Alonso Castañeda Pineda / Corresponsal; El Orbe, domingo 29 de marzo de 2009.

(26) http://www.debate.com.mx/eldebate/Articulos/ArticuloGeneral.asp?IdArt=8118327&IdCat=6273.
Ver también Rhett Butler and Sarah Conway Rhett Butler y Sarah Conway; “Conservación de las turberas podría ser más rentable que el aceite de palma?”; 22 de agosto de 2007; www.mongabay.com

(27) Alonso Castañeda Pineda / Corresponsal; EL ORBE, jueves 05 de febrero de 2009.

(28) Alonso Castañeda Pineda / Corresponsal; EL ORBE , sábado 30 de mayo de 2009.

(29) www.mongabay.com

(30) Germer y Sauerborn, revista Medio Ambiente, Desarrollo y Sostenibilidad; www.mongabay.com

(31) www.mongabay.com

(32) Cfr. Plan Rector y proyecto Prodesis.

(33) Cuarto Poder, Jorge Moscoso Pedrero, Jueves 25 de Septiembre de 2008.

(34) Estrategias de Comercialización de Sistemas Producto, Sistemas de Inteligencia de Mercado para la Competitividad/ Secretaría del Campo, Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas; presentación en pdf s/f

(35) Héctor Narváez/El Orbe, Jueves 26 de marzo de 2009.

(36) Proyecto: Establecimiento de plantaciones de Palma Africana en el Municipio de Marqués de Comillas. Cit.

(37) Alonso Castañeda Pineda / Corresponsal; EL ORBE, sábado 02 de mayo de 2009.

(38) Alberto de la Cruz Aguilar; EL ORBE / jueves 05 de marzo de 2009.

(39) Alonso Castañeda Pineda / Corresponsal; EL ORBE / martes 12 de mayo de 2009.

(40) Comunicado 1184, Op. Cit, declaración de Salim Rodríguez Salomón del Instituto del Fomento para la Agricultura Tropical.

(41) Proyecto: Establecimiento de plantaciones de Palma Africana en el Municipio de Marqués de Comillas. Cit.


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